Draft Maui Outdoor Lighting Standards Ordinance


Why an ordinance?

Outline of the Ordinance

  1. Construction: All public and private outdoor lighting in the County of Maui.

  2. General Exemptions:

    1. Emergency lighting.

    2. Fossil fuel light---"Tiki torches".

    3. Holiday decorative lighting.

  3. County shall establish an Outdoor Lighting Standards Committee
    • to review requests for additional exemptions.

  4. Lamp standards:

    1.    1800+ Lumens ==> Low Pressure Sodium

      Exemptions: Where color rendition is needed:

      • outdoor sales or eating areas during business hours,

      • assembly or repair areas,

      • recreational facilities and other similar applications,

      • advertising and other signs.

      • Exemptions may be granted by the director and the Outdoor Lighting Standards Committee.

    2. Mercury vapor Prohibited
      - installation, sale, offering for sale, lease, or purchase

    3. Rural wattages, maximum permitted:
      Intersection Type LPS Lamps HPS Lamps
      Major 75 W 110 W
      Internal 50 W 70 W

    4. Urban wattages, maximum permitted:
      Intersection Type LPS Lamps HPS Lamps
      Major 125 W 175 W
      Internal 75 W 110 W

      Comparison: Energy use ratio:
      Unshielded ==> Shielded 70%
      HPS ==> LPS 70%
      Unshielded HPS ==> Shielded LPS 49%

  5. Luminaire standards:

    • Fully shielded luminaires with a 15 degree cutoff required universally.


      1. Less than 260 lumens: only opaque top required.

      2. 260-1000 lumens: partially shielded with opaque top required.

      3. Sensor activated lighting

      4. Flood or spot lights less than 900 lumens: must not shine on other's property or beach or ocean.

      5. Translucent internally lit advertising signs.

    • 100 meters from ocean & 900+ lumens ==> additional shielding not to shine on ocean or sandy beach.

  6. Luminaire mount standards:

    1. Height must be less than 20 feet - Sports field lighting exempt.

    2. Building-mounted luminaires must be lower than the roof.

    3. Existing aluminum light poles are grandfathered in.

    4. New light poles shall be non-reflective.

    5. Exemptions may be granted by the director and the Outdoor Lighting Standards Committee.

  7. Street Light installation:

    1. Permitted sites:

      1. At sites of night time accidents.

      2. Rural or urban intersections.

      3. At sites of altered roadway alignment or hazardous structures.

      4. High-crime sites.

      5. Sites with hazardous turn-offs.

      6. Subdivision streets dedicated to the county with 50% + occupancy.

    2. Required sites:

      1. Intersections only.

    3. Street lights not needed shall be removed.

    4. Rural streets shall not be required to have street lights, and standards shall follow the Community Plans.

  8. Specific Uses:

    1. Searchlights for advertising prohibited.

    2. Lighted towers prohibited (except FAA requirements).

    3. Canopy & Service Station Lighting

      1. Lighting may not be used to attract attention to business.

      2. Lighting only to facilitate activities on site.

      3. Light fixtures in canopies shall be recessed or flush with ceiling or shielded.

    4. Outdoor Sports or Recreation Fields or Performance Areas

      1. Fully shielded with fifteen (15) degree cutoff

      2. Lights off after midnight.

      3. Lights off 1-hour after event.

      4. Light levels no more that 105% of IESNA standards

    5. Security lighting

      1. Sensors may be required by the director.

      2. Non-sensor lighting must be fully shielded.

      3. Security lighting must fall only where designated.

    6. Non-essential exterior commercial lights must turn off after business hours.

    7. Architectural Accent Lighting.

      1. Light directed only on architectural features.

      2. No direct light may go beyond property.

      3. Hawaii or US flags may be illuminated from below by spot lights.

  9. Development Permits:

    • Building permits shall require evidence that outdoor lights will comply with ordinance.

  10. Existing Light Fixtures

    1. Existing lights are grandfathered for 5 years.

    2. Existing fully-shielded lights are permanently grandfathered.

    3. The County shall retrofit lights it operates

      • using the most cost-effective replacement schedule taking energy savings into account,

      • but taking no longer than 5 years.

    Street Light Operating Costs: 340 hours/month * 12 months/year * $0.172947/KWH = $705.62/year per KW
    Street Light Retrofit Costs: Luminaire ~$150 Labor ~$100.

    Retrofit: 250W Unshielded HPS ==> 125W Shielded LPS 150W Unshielded HPS ==> 75W Shielded LPS 100W Unshielded HPS ==> 50W Shielded LPS
    Savings per year: $88.20 $52.92 $35.28
    Retrofit marginal cost: Payback time:
    Retrofit when bulb burns out: $150 1.7 years 2.8 years 4.25 years
    Retrofit immediately: $250 2.8 years 4.7 years 7 years

  11. Notification

    1. Planning Department permits shall ask about exterior lighting.

    2. These standards shall be mailed to all local electricians, electric suppliers, the Chamber of Commerce, and each address on the Water and Sewer mailing lists.

  12. The County's Role

    1. Commitment to bring its own lighting into compliance.

    2. Assist property owners with consultation to correct non-conforming lighting.

  13. Penalties:

    1. Violations are civil infractions.

    2. Each day in violation, and each prohibited sale, counts as one violation.

    3. 120 days to abate violation after being notified to avoid fine.

    4. $500 first violation, $750 for each repeat.

  14. Severability: One provision if found invalid does not invalidate the rest.

  15. Repealer Clause: Repeals any conflicting ordinances.

Maui Light Pollution Resources on the Web: